Kudriashova Sofia Vladimirovna, Candidate of philological sciences, associate professor, sub-department of German and French languages, Saratov State law Academy (1 Volskaya street, Saratov, Russia), firstname.lastname@example.org
Background. The relevance of the study is determined by consideration of borrowing as a process that is not necessarily manifested in bilingualism – first of all, it requires language contact. Borrowing is thought of as a process by which elements of another language, foreign to the native language, are not regulated by the knowledge of the language from which they are drawn. In most cases, borrowed units adapt to varying degrees on the phonological, morphological, lexical-semantic and stylistic levels, in other words, modified in accordance with the rules of the recipient language. The aim of the study was to identify different views of domestic and foreign linguists on the concept of “borrowing”, analysis of theoretical approaches to the study of types of borrowings and linguistic criteria to adapt them to the recipient language.
Materials and methods. The data for the study included scientific articles, author’s abstracts of dissertations and monographs. The study used a descriptive method, involving interpretation and classification of the material, as well as an inductive-deductive method to comprehend and summarize the relevant theoretical material.
Results. The study revealed three main stages of adaptation of borrowings in the recipient language: penetration, partially acquisition (borrowing), rooting in the language. In this case, it is often difficult to determine at what stage is a particular borrowing in the process of adaptation. The adaptation process of borrowing at different levels of language is not uniform: a relatively small amount of borrowings is characterized by the same degree of development at all levels of the language system.
Conclusions. The concept of borrowing in linguistics is multivalued. This phenomenon is studied in terms of adaptation of borrowed items and their changes under the influence of interference, as well as functioning in the the recipient language. Features of these processes can be caused by both internal and external factors. Borrowing is a process, characteristic for the situation of bilingualism and monolingualism as alien elements of another language are not regulated by the knowledge of the language, from which they are drawn. In most cases, borrowed units adapt to varying degrees in all language levels, modified in accordance with the rules of the recipient language.
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